Types of kernel

There are four types of kernel:

  • Monolithic Kernel
  • Micro Kernel
  • Hybrid Kernel
  • Nano Kernel

Monolithic Kernel:

  • It is one of those kernels where the user services/applications such as device drivers, file server, graphical tools, programs of any language,and kernel space services like process management, device management, interrupt handling share the same memory.
  • They are faster as there is no separate user space and kernel space.
  • All the components are tightly coupled hence failure in any one component affects the entire system.
  • They are bigger than a micro kernel and are not easily customizable.
  • Example: Unix, Linux

Micro Kernel:

  • In this user services and kernel services are implemented in different space and hence are slower, unlike monolithic kernel.
  • There is separate user and kernel space.
  • The components are loosely coupled and fault in one component does not affect the other.
  • Example: Symbian

Diag-1: Micro and Monolithic Kernel

untitled image

Hybrid Kernel:

  • It is the combination of both monolithic kernel and mircrokernel. It has speed and design of monolithic kernel and modularity and stability of microkernel.
  • Example: Windows NT, Netware

Nano Kernel:

  • A kernel in which the total volume of kernel code, that is, the code being executed in the hardware’s privileged mode, is quite small.
  • Larger kernels are designed to offer more features and manage more hardware abstraction.

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Categories: Operating system (OS)

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