- IP protocol has no error reporting or error correcting mechanism and
- It does not support host and management queries. A host sometime need to determine if a router or a host is alive.
Thus ICMP works as a companion to the IP protocol to compensate for the above two deficiencies.
ICMP messages are divided into two broad categories:
- Error Reporting Message
- Query Message
- There is no ICMP error message generated for any ICMP message itself.
- It is not generated for multicast address and fragmented datagram and special address such as loopback (127.0.0.1 or 0.0.0.0).
- ICMP always reports error messages to the original source
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