Internet Control Message Protocol(ICMP)

  • IP protocol has no error reporting or error correcting mechanism and
  • It does not support host and management queries. A host sometime need to determine if a router or a host is alive.

Thus ICMP works as a companion to the IP protocol to compensate for the above two deficiencies.

ICMP messages are divided into two broad categories:

  • Error Reporting Message
  • Query Message


  • There is no ICMP error message generated for any ICMP message itself.
  • It is not generated for multicast address and fragmented datagram and special address such as loopback ( or
  • ICMP always reports error messages to the original source
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Categories: Networking

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